• You may view all math units here:

Math Edition
You may also refer to the overview page to view the new way to add and subtract.

 Math Skill:

Different ways to show a number:
Base Ten blocks/Model
Expanded Form
Standard Form
Word Form

Math Skill:  Greater Than and Less Than
ALWAYS read number sentences from LEFT to RIGHT, just as you do a book.  This will help you to understand these confusing symbols a letter better...hopefully.
Examples:
25  >  22  --- 25 is Greater Than 22
30  <  55  ---  30 is Less Than 55

Math Skill:  Fact Families:
-number sentences that go with a set of numbers

Math Skill:  Fact Families:

-number sentences that go with a set of numbers
Example:    7       6      13
7+6=13
6+7=13
13-7=6
13-6=7

1.  Join the ONES.
2.  Regroup, IF needed.
3.  Join the TENS.

**Regrouping is the same as "Carrying".
To compose means to add. To decompose means to subtract.

Math Skill:  Two-Digit Subtraction
**Follow these steps to subtract two-digit numbers.
1.  Look at the ones.
2.  Regroup, IF needed.
3.  Subtract the ones.
4.  Subtract the tens.
**Regrouping is the same as "borrowing".

Math Skill:  Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction
Follow the same steps as two-digit addition and subtraction, just moving to the left for another column.  It is not harder, just one more column to work out.

**Common Subtraction Error**
If the number on top is smaller, many students will try to subtract the top number from the bottom.  This will not work.  They need to remember to regroup if the bottom number is bigger than the top.
Ex:  422                 422
- 179               -179
357                 243
(incorrect)            (correct)

We know that 357 is not the correct answer.  Since you cannot subtract 9 from 2, regroup from the tens.  The tens is now a 1 and the ones place now has 12.  Subtract 9 from 12 and get 3.  Then, look at the tens place.  You now have a 1 on top.  Since you can not subtract 7 from 1, you need to regroup.  Take 100 from the hundreds.  The hundreds place is now a 3 and the tens place is now an 11.  Subtract 7 from 11 and get 4.  Then subtract the hundreds place.  3-1 is 2.  The correct answer is 243.

Math Skill:  Measurements
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
100 cm = 1 m

Math Skill:  Multiplication
**First and foremost, please understand that I teach all students to read the multiplication sentence with the first number being the number of rows or groups.  I always make sure that number sentences match up with pictures.  After this basic concept, we learn how to switch them up to get the same product.
Ex:  2 x 4 = 8
2 is the number of rows or groups
4 is the number in each row or group
* * * *
* * * *
Yes, 4 x 2 gets the same product, but the picture is not the same.  Hence we need to understand the concept before trying to switch things up.  A lot of students and parents get excited about learning multiplication and try to go all out the first time.  This concept needs to be "learned and practiced" before it can be mastered.  Yes, they will need to memorize their times tables for third grade, but they need to understand why 2 x 3 is 6 and not 5.  Thank you for understanding.
Now, LET'S HAVE FUN!!!
Multiplication can be introduced/ learned at this age by using a variety of strategies.  We begin by teaching how to make groups and counting the groups.  Then we move on to other strategies.  Knowing some of these strategies can give your child a basic knowledge of how to figure out multiplication problems without actually knowing the times tables.  At this age, I do not expect them to know the times tables, but we can figure out any multiplication problem by using the strategies learned in class.  Go ahead and try it with your child!  You may be amazed!!
Using repeated addition is one of the first and most basic ways to learn to multiply.  It is just like it says:  repeated addition.
Example:  Sara has 5 packs of gum.  Each pack has 3 pieces.  How many pieces of gum does Sara have in all?
Add the number of pieces in each pack for the number of packs there are:  3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 15
Here's how to set it up:  Draw 5 blanks to represent the number of packs.  Put 3 in each blank to represent the number of pieces in each pack.  Then add all the pieces together.
Skip Counting to Multiply:
We have been practicing skip counting by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, and 10s for most of the year.  (3s and 4s up to 48)  Many of our students can do these by memory.  YEAH!!!!!
If the problem is 7 x 5; your child can hold up 7 fingers and skip-count by 5s.   5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35
If a problem is somthing like 3 x 9, we can not skip-count by 9s, but we can reverse the problem to 9 x 3.  Then your child can hold up 9 fingers and skip c ount by 3s.  3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27
Using Arrays:
An array is an organized picture that lets you muliply quickly.  You probably have seen arrays many places and did not know that they were arrays.
EXAMPLE: You stack your canned veggies in your pantry.  You have 3 rows that are 4 cans high.  How many cans of veggies do you have?
3 rows x 4 cans in each row-- 3 x 4 = 12
**We have practiced drawing pictures to show how we solve multiplication problems.  Try this one:  6 x 8 = ?   YES, your second grader can figure this out using an array! :-)
Make 6 rows (remember that rows go ACROSS), put 8 pictures of whatever you want in each row.  We usually make dots or stars, hearts are easy also.
Remember to do the array neatly.  Then count your pictures. TA DA! You now know the product of 6 x 8.
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
Did you get 48?    YEAH!!!
Using a Multiplication Grid:
We are just beginning to use a multiplication grid.  This is a little tricky to set up, but easy to use once you figure it out. To find a product, take the first number and put your finger on the matching number on the right side of the grid.  Take the second number and put your finger on the matching number at the top of the grid.  Run your fingers across and down until they match up in the corresponding box.  This should be your product.  Beginners may need to practice this a few times. You can use flashcards on this website: