• reading
    Helpful Information
    Are you smarter than your 2nd Grader? 
    Reading Edition
     
     Reading Term:  Genre 
    This tells what type of story we are reading.  We will be reading many types of genres throughout the year. 
    Genre
    Definition
    Characteristics
    Fantasy
    a story that takes place in a make-believe world and has events that can not happen in real life
    -characters and events that would not happen in real life
    -a setting that may be different from the real world
    -animals that do things that real animals can not do
    Informational Story
    a story that gives you facts
    about a topic through a story plot
    -a story that gives information
    -pictures that help you understand the topic
    -a plot with a beginning, a middle, and an end
    -characters that tell facts
    Realistic Fiction
    a story that is not real, but has events and characters that could be like the real world
    -characters that do things real people do
    -characters that have feelings real people have
    -a setting that could be a real place
    -events that could really happen
    Story
    has characters, a setting, and a plot
    -a plot with a beginning, a middle, and an end
    -story events that happen in order
    -pictures that help tell the story
    Folktale
    a story that has been told for a long time by a group of people
    -things that are much bigger than they could be in real life
    -events that happen over and over
    Nonfiction:
    Photo Essay
    a photo essay tells about a topic using photographs and words
    -photographs that give important ideas about the topic
    -sentences that help you think about the photographs
    Play
    a story that can be acted out
    -scenes with different settings
    -a plot divided into scenes
    -words that tell the characters' actions and feelings
    Expository
    Nonfiction
    a book that gives facts about a topic
    -diagrams with labels
    -events in time order
    -main ideas and details
    -headings that tell you what each section is about
    Non-Fiction:
    Personal Narrative
    a true story about something important to the narrator
    -information about the narrator's life
    -first-person words such as I, me, and my
     
     
     
    Skill: Main Idea
    The main idea is what is most important in a story.  Each sentence should help support the main idea.  Sometimes the main idea is the first sentence of the paragraph.  Sometimes it may be the last.  At other times, the author may give you information to help you figure out the main idea.  Always be sure to read carefully and ask yourself: 
    What is the whole paragraph about?  Does each sentence tell about the "whole"? 
    Think of the main idea as a table.  The main idea is the "top" of the table.  The other sentences are the supporting details, or "legs" of the table.  The details will help support the table.  They must tell about the main idea.  If they do not, they will not support it.
     
    Skill:  Author's Purpose
    The author's purpose is why the author is writing a selection.  There are three main purposes:  Persuade, Inform, Entertain.
    Persuade:  the author is trying to get you to do something, or is trying to change your opinion about something
    Inform:  the author is telling you factual information about a topic
    Entertain:  the author wants you to enjoy yourself, or tries to make you laugh
    Look at the examples below:
     
    1
    Hello, Ladies and Gentlemen!  I want to tell you about a wonderful place to go to school.  It is South Effingham Elementary.  It is the best elementary school in the county, the world, even the whole country!  Don't you want to send your children there today?   
     
    2
    South Effingham Elementary is located in Guyton, Ga.  It is located at on Kolic Helmey Road.  This school currently serves children from pre-kindergarten through fifth grade. 
     
    3
    Hello, my name is Peter Plant.  Let me tell you a secret about where I live.  It's a great place to be.  I live in a school that is one of the best (by day)!  At night, it is a different story.  The party gets going when all our children go home for the day!  Inside our colorful walls, you will find a selection of friendly desks, happy-go-lucky pencils, and sometimes a few grumpy clocks. We like to have parties in the libraries just so we can confuse our librarian.  Come get locked in one night and have a ball with us! 
     
    Quiz:  What was the purpose of each story?
    1-persuade
    2-inform
    3-entertain
     
     
     Reading Skill:  Setting
    The setting tells where and when a story takes place.  Look for picture and word clues in the story to help you determine the setting.
     
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Cause and Effect
    *The cause tells WHY something happened
    *The effect tells WHAT happened
    Ask yourself some questions to help determine cause and effect relationships.  Practice this skill:
    The mouse ran into the hole, because the cat was chasing it.
    Why did the mouse run into the hole?  The cat was chasing it.  This is the cause.
    What happened because the cat was chasing the mouse?  The mouse ran into the hole.  This is the effect.
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Making Inferences
    To make an inference, use story clues and what you already know to help figure out what the author doesn't tell you.
    EX:  Marissa was at the pet store trying to decide what type of animal to buy.  She knew she wanted something small that could be kept in a cage.  As she was walking around she kept coming back to the aisle with the wheels and tunnels.  She finally made up her mind.  She went to tell her mom what kind of pet she wanted.  What type of pet did Marissa choose?
    Did you say hamster?  What clues from the story helped you?  What do you already know about hamsters?
     
    Reading Skill:  Fact and Fiction
    Facts are details that are true and tell about things.
    Fiction is made up.  Things can happen in fiction that can not happen in real life.
    See if you can determine what is fact and fiction below:
        
    Female emperor penguins lay eggs in May or June which is the beginning of winter in Antartica.
    Fact
    Penguins are the coolest animals on the planet.
    Fiction
    Male Emperor penguins take care of the eggs for two months.
    Fact
    Penguins only live in Antartica.
    Fiction
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Antonyms
    Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings.
    Examples:
    cool
    warm
    hot
    cold
    wet
    dry
    nice
    mean
    tall
    short
     
     
    Reading Skill: Homophones, Homonyms, and Homographs
    Homophones, Homonyms, and Homographs can be VERY confusing to most people.  The three are used incorrectly so much that most people don't even know there is a difference between them.  So...here's the lowdown.
     
    Reading Skill: 
    Multiple-Meaning Words/ Homonyms
    **Multiple-Meaning Words are also known as Homonyms**
    A multiple-meaning word is a word that has more than one meaning.
    You need to read/ listen to the sentence and how the word is used to determine the meaning.
    EX:  PLAY
    I want to play with my friends at the park.
    -Play means to go and have fun
    Will you go and watch the play with me?
    -Play means a show with separate acts.
     
    *Many words can be used as nouns and verbs which make them multiple-meaning words*
    Common Multiple-Meaning Words
    glasses
    1-things you wear on your face that are used to see
    2-things you drink liquids out of
    bat
    1-small nocturnal animal
    2-wooden or metal stick used to hit balls
    3-take a turn at hitting a ball
    pitcher
    1-glass or plastic container used to hold liquids
    2-person who throws the ball to batters in baseball
    stick
    1-small wooden branch from a tree
    2-make something adhere to something else--like glue
    slide
    1-playground equipment that you go down
    2-baseball move where you try to tag the base with your feet first
    batter
    1-liquid mixture used to make cakes, brownies, cookies, etc
    2-person who is taking a turn at hitting the ball in baseball
    pitch
    1-musical term for a sound that is made
    2-to throw the ball for someone to hit
    How many other multiple-meaning words (homonyms)
    can you think of?
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Homophones
    Homophones are words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings.  You have to listen to how the word is used to determine the correct spelling.
    EX:  SEA/ SEE
    I will ride in a boat over the sea.
    -sea means a body of water
    I see a tall ship in the distance.
    -see means to look or spot something with your eyes
    Common Homophones
    two
    too
    -the number
    -also
    deer
    dear
    -the animal
    -a name/ greeting for someone you care about
    mail
    male
    -a letter or to send something
    - a boy or man
    sun
    son
    -the star in the sky that provides light and heat
    -a male child
    bare
    bear
    -nothing on it
    -a big animal
    night
    knight
    -a time when it is dark outside
    -a midevil soldier
     

     

    Reading Skill:  Homographs
    Homographs are words that are spelled the same, but have different pronunciations and different meanings.
    Examples:  record/ record
    Do you want to listen to the record?
    -record means something that music is on (yes, these are just about obsolete now)
    If you sing, I will record it on tape.
    -to tape someone's voice
Last Modified on July 26, 2017