Important Learning Information for Parents

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    Helpful Information
    Are you smarter than your 2nd grader?
    Reading Edition
     
     Reading Term: Genre 
    This tells what type of story we are reading.  We will be reading many types of genres throughout the year. 
    Genre
    Definition
    Characteristics
    Fantasy
    a story that takes place in a make-believe world and has events that can not happen in real life
    -characters and events that would not happen in real life
    -a setting that may be different from the real world
    -animals that do things that real animals can not do
    Informational Story
    a story that gives you facts
    about a topic through a story plot
    -a story that gives information
    -pictures that help you understand the topic
    -a plot with a beginning, a middle, and an end
    -characters that tell facts
    Realistic Fiction
    a story that is not real, but has events and characters that could be like the real world
    -characters that do things real people do
    -characters that have feelings real people have
    -a setting that could be a real place
    -events that could really happen
    Story
    has characters, a setting, and a plot
    -a plot with a beginning, a middle, and an end
    -story events that happen in order
    -pictures that help tell the story
    Folktale
    a story that has been told for a long time by a group of people
    -things that are much bigger than they could be in real life
    -events that happen over and over
    Nonfiction:
    Photo Essay
    a photo essay tells about a topic using photographs and words
    -photographs that give important ideas about the topic
    -sentences that help you think about the photographs
    Play
    a story that can be acted out
    -scenes with different settings
    -a plot divided into scenes
    -words that tell the characters' actions and feelings
    Expository
    Nonfiction
    a book that gives facts about a topic
    -diagrams with labels
    -events in time order
    -main ideas and details
    -headings that tell you what each section is about
    Non-Fiction:
    Personal Narrative
    a true story about something important to the narrator
    -information about the narrator's life
    -first-person words such as I, me, and my
     
     
     
    Skill: Main Idea
    The main idea is what is most important in a story.  Each sentence should help support the main idea.  Sometimes the main idea is the first sentence of the paragraph.  Sometimes it may be the last.  At other times, the author may give you information to help you figure out the main idea.  Always be sure to read carefully and ask yourself: 
    What is the whole paragraph about?  Does each sentence tell about the "whole"? 
    Think of the main idea as a table.  The main idea is the "top" of the table.  The other sentences are the supporting details, or "legs" of the table.  The details will help support the table.  They must tell about the main idea.  If they do not, they will not support it.
     
    Skill:  Author's Purpose
    The author's purpose is why the author is writing a selection.  There are three main purposes:  Persuade, Inform, Entertain.
    Persuade:  the author is trying to get you to do something, or is trying to change your opinion about something
    Inform:  the author is telling you factual information about a topic
    Entertain:  the author wants you to enjoy yourself, or tries to make you laugh
    Look at the examples below:
     
    1
    Hello, Ladies and Gentlemen!  I want to tell you about a wonderful place to go to school.  It is Sand Hill Elementary.  It is the best elementary school in the county, the world, even the whole country!  Don't you want to send your children there today?   
     
    2
    Sand Hill Elementary is located in Guyton, Ga.  It is located at on Stage Coach Avenue.  This school currently serves children from pre-kindergarten through fifth grade. 
     
    3
    Hello, my name is Peter Plant.  Let me tell you a secret about where I live.  It's a great place to be.  I live in a school that is one of the best (by day)!  At night, it is a different story.  The party gets going when all our children go home for the day!  Inside our colorful walls, you will find a selection of friendly desks, happy-go-lucky pencils, and sometimes a few grumpy clocks. We like to have parties in the libraries just so we can confuse our librarian.  Come get locked in one night and have a ball with us! 
     
    Quiz:  What was the purpose of each story?
    1-persuade
    2-inform
    3-entertain
     
     
     Reading Skill:  Setting
    The setting tells where and when a story takes place.  Look for picture and word clues in the story to help you determine the setting.
     
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Cause and Effect
    *The cause tells WHY something happened
    *The effect tells WHAT happened
    Ask yourself some questions to help determine cause and effect relationships.  Practice this skill:
    The mouse ran into the hole, because the cat was chasing it.
    Why did the mouse run into the hole?  The cat was chasing it.  This is the cause.
    What happened because the cat was chasing the mouse?  The mouse ran into the hole.  This is the effect.
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Making Inferences
    To make an inference, use story clues and what you already know to help figure out what the author doesn't tell you.
    EX:  Marissa was at the pet store trying to decide what type of animal to buy.  She knew she wanted something small that could be kept in a cage.  As she was walking around she kept coming back to the aisle with the wheels and tunnels.  She finally made up her mind.  She went to tell her mom what kind of pet she wanted.  What type of pet did Marissa choose?
    Did you say hamster?  What clues from the story helped you?  What do you already know about hamsters?
     
    Reading Skill:  Fact and Fiction
    Facts are details that are true and tell about things.
    Fiction is made up.  Things can happen in fiction that can not happen in real life.
    See if you can determine what is fact and fiction below:
        
    Female emperor penguins lay eggs in May or June which is the beginning of winter in Antartica.
    Fact
    Penguins are the coolest animals on the planet.
    Fiction
    Male Emperor penguins take care of the eggs for two months.
    Fact
    Penguins only live in Antartica.
    Fiction
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Antonyms
    Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings.
    Examples:
    cool
    warm
    hot
    cold
    wet
    dry
    nice
    mean
    tall
    short
     
     
    Reading Skill: Homophones, Homonyms, and Homographs
    Homophones, Homonyms, and Homographs can be VERY confusing to most people.  The three are used incorrectly so much that most people don't even know there is a difference between them.  So...here's the lowdown.
     
    Reading Skill: 
    Multiple-Meaning Words/ Homonyms
    **Multiple-Meaning Words are also known as Homonyms**
    A multiple-meaning word is a word that has more than one meaning.
    You need to read/ listen to the sentence and how the word is used to determine the meaning.
    EX:  PLAY
    I want to play with my friends at the park.
    -Play means to go and have fun
    Will you go and watch the play with me?
    -Play means a show with separate acts.
     
    *Many words can be used as nouns and verbs which make them multiple-meaning words*
    Common Multiple-Meaning Words
    glasses
    1-things you wear on your face that are used to see
    2-things you drink liquids out of
    bat
    1-small nocturnal animal
    2-wooden or metal stick used to hit balls
    3-take a turn at hitting a ball
    pitcher
    1-glass or plastic container used to hold liquids
    2-person who throws the ball to batters in baseball
    stick
    1-small wooden branch from a tree
    2-make something adhere to something else--like glue
    slide
    1-playground equipment that you go down
    2-baseball move where you try to tag the base with your feet first
    batter
    1-liquid mixture used to make cakes, brownies, cookies, etc
    2-person who is taking a turn at hitting the ball in baseball
    pitch
    1-musical term for a sound that is made
    2-to throw the ball for someone to hit
     
     
    How many other multiple-meaning words (homonyms)
    can you think of?
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Homophones
    Homophones are words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings.  You have to listen to how the word is used to determine the correct spelling.
    EX:  SEA/ SEE
    I will ride in a boat over the sea.
    -sea means a body of water
    I see a tall ship in the distance.
    -see means to look or spot something with your eyes
    Common Homophones
    two
    too
    -the number
    -also
    deer
    dear
    -the animal
    -a name/ greeting for someone you care about
    mail
    male
    -a letter or to send something
    - a boy or man
    sun
    son
    -the star in the sky that provides light and heat
    -a male child
    bare
    bear
    -nothing on it
    -a big animal
    night
    knight
    -a time when it is dark outside
    -a midevil soldier
     
     
    Reading Skill:  Homographs
    Homographs are words that are spelled the same, but have different pronunciations and different meanings.
    Examples:  record/ record
    Do you want to listen to the record?
    -record means something that music is on (yes, these are just about obsolete now)
    If you sing, I will record it on tape.
    -to tape someone's voice
     
    **Below you will find many of the skills we will be learning in Second Grade.  Please feel free to practice these ahead of time or just use this page to help you brush up on your skills. 
     
    Language Skill:  Parts of a Sentence
    Subject:  The naming part of a sentence--it tells who or what the sentence  
                  is about.
    Predicate:  The telling part of a sentence--it tells about the subject.
     
    Examples:  The dog and cat are chasing each other around the tree.
                     John ran and opened the door.
                    Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty are cartoon characters.
                    Laura always washes her hair.
     
    Helpful Equation:  Subject + Predicate = Sentence
     
     
     
      
    Language Skill:  Types of Sentences
     
     
    Sentence Type
    What it does
    Punctuation Needed
    Statement
    Tells
    Period  (.)
    Question
    Asks
    Question Mark (?)
    Exclamation
    Shows strong feeling
    Exclamation Mark (!)
    Command
    Tells someone to do something
    Period (.)
     
    Examples Sentences:
    Statement:  The sky is blue. 
    Question:  Do you want to go to the movies Friday night?
    Exclamation:  Wow, that show was awesome!
    Command:  Tell Bob to shut the door.
     
     
    Language Skill:  Parts of Speech
     
     
     
     
    Part of Speech
    Description
    Examples
    Noun
    names a person, place, thing, or animal
    doctor
    store
    toy
    tiger
    Pronoun
    replaces a noun
    I, you, he, she, me,
    it, your, our, their, his, her, etc.
    Adjectives
    words that describe
    big, brown, furry, two, many, round, rough
    Verbs
    tell what someone or something is or does
    run, hop, skip, play, talk, swing, love, hug
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
                                                                                                  
         
    Language Skill:  PLURAL NOUNS
    Rule:
    Example:
    Add -s to MOST nouns
    girls, boys, stores, buildings
    Add -es to words that end with s, ss, x, ch, sh
    buses, kisses, foxes, watches, dishes
    Change the y to i and add -es when there is a consonant and a y at the end of the word
    flies, butterflies, stories, cities, pennies
    Some words change their spelling (These are irregular.)
        Can you think of other irregular plural nouns?
    tooth=teeth   mouse=mice
                               
     
    Language Skill:  Proper Nouns
    Proper nouns are the special names of people, places, things, animals, or events. This includes days of the week, months of the year, holidays, sports teams, etc.
    Examples:
    Person:  Mrs. Sawyer
    Place:  Sand Hill Elementary
    Things:  The Nintendo Wii
    Animals: Baker (Mrs. Sawyer's dog)
    Hunter and Hannah (our class pets)
    Events:  Red Ribbon Week
    Days of the Week:  Friday
    Months of the Year:  April
    Holidays:  Easter
    Sports Team:  South Effingham Mustangs
      
    Language Skill:  Possessive Nouns
    Nouns which show ownership.
    *Add an apostrophe and an s to singular nouns. 
    *Add an apostrophe after the s in plural nouns.
     
    Ex:  Lauren's hat:  Who owns the hat?  Lauren
    The boys' shirts:  Who owns the shirts?  The boys.
     
     
    Language Skill:  Pronouns
    Words that take the place of nouns
    Examples:  I, you, he, she, it, they, we, our, his, her
    Ex:  Bradley is wearing a green shirt.
    He is wearing a green shirt.
     
    Language Skill:  Adjectives
    Words that DESCRIBE:
    This can include words that tell shape, color, size,
    how many, what kind, etc.
    Ex:  The big bird is yellow and fluffy.
    ***big, yellow, and fluffy are adjectives
     
     
    Language Skill:  Helping Verbs
    Has, Have, and Had
    Helping verbs help the main verb in a sentence to make sense.
    Has and Have tell about things now. Had tells about things in the past.
    Use the following chart to help you determine which helping verb to use in a sentence.
    Subject
    Now
    Past
    Singular Subject:  He, She, It, Mrs. Sawyer
    Has
    Had
    Plural Subject:  They, We, Brad and Matt, The girls
    OR if your subject is I or You
    Have
    Had
    Example Sentences:
    Mrs. Sawyer has a new kitten.
    Mrs. Sawyer had a great time at the game yesterday.
    The boys have a lot of work to do today.
    They had a lot of work to do last month.
    I have a lot of great students this year.
    You had a big party for your birthday last year.
     
     
    Language Skill:  Linking Verbs
    Am, Is, Are, Was, and Were
    Linking Verbs are used to "link" a sentence together.
    Am, Is, and Are tell about now.  Was and Were tell about the past.
    Use the following chart to help you figure out which linking verb to use.
    Subject
    Now
    Past
    Singular Subject:  Joyce, She, The animal, It, The family
    Is
    Was
    Subject:  I
    Am
    Was
    Subject:  You
    Are
    Were
    Plural Subject:  John and Beth, We, The children
    Are
    Were
    Example Sentences:
    Brandon is wearing a green shirt.
    The family was excited about their vacation.
    I am going to the mall.
    You are going to the mall, too.
    The children are going on a field trip soon.
    We were going to go to the beach yesterday, but it rained.
     
    Language Skill:  Irregular Verbs
    Irregular verbs do not add -ed to make them past tense.  You have to learn the endings of these past tense verbs. 
    Examples:
                           Present Tense:              Past Tense:
     
                                Run                                     Ran
                                Sing                                    Sang
                                Do                                      Did
                                Read                                   Read
                                Find                                    Found
                                Go                                      Went
                                Fly                                      Flew
     
    How many other irregular verbs can you think of?
     
     
     
     
     math
    Helpful Information
    Are you smarter than your 2nd grader?
    Math Edition
     
    **Below you will find many of the skills we will be learning in Second Grade.  Please feel free to practice these ahead of time or just use this page to help you brush up on your skills. 
     
    Math Skill:  Expanded Notation
     
       Examples:    1,000+ 600+ 40+ 5 = 1,645
                 700+ 80+ 1 = 781
     
     
    Math Skill:  Greater Than and Less Than
    The dreaded alligator....
    ALWAYS read number sentences from LEFT to RIGHT, just as you do a book.  This will help you to understand these confusing symbols a letter better...hopefully.
    Examples: 
    25  >  22  --- 25 is Greater Than 22
    30  <  55  ---  30 is Less Than 55
     
     
    Math Skill:  Fact Families:
    Addition/ Subtraction
    -number sentences that go with a set of numbers
                  Example:             13
                                   7 + 6 = 13                 13 - 7 = 6
                                   6 + 7 = 13                 13 - 6 = 7
     
    Math Skill:  Fact Families: 
    Multiplication/ Division
    -number sentences that go with a set of numbers
    Example:    7             42
                  7 x 6 = 42              42  ÷ 7 = 6            
    6 x 7 = 42               42 ÷ 6 = 7
     
    **Addition and Subtraction are OPPOSITES**
    **Multiplication and Division are OPPOSITES**
     
     
    Math Skill:  Two-Digit Addition      
    **Follow these steps to add two-digit numbers.
    1.  Join the ONES.
    2.  Regroup, IF needed.
    3.  Join the TENS.
     
    **Regrouping is the same as "Carrying".
     
    Math Skill:  Two-Digit Subtraction
    **Follow these steps to subtract two-digit numbers.
    1.  Look at the ones. 
    2.  Regroup, IF needed.
    3.  Subtract the ones.
    4.  Subtract the tens.
    **Regrouping is the same as "borrowing".
     
    Math Skill:  Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction
    Follow the same steps as two-digit addition and subtraction, just moving to the left for another column.  It is not harder, just one more column to work out.
     
    **Common Subtraction Error**
    If the number on top is smaller, many students will try to subtract the top number from the bottom.  This will not work.  They need to remember to regroup if the bottom number is bigger than the top.
    Ex:  422                 422
        - 179               -179
             357               243
    (incorrect)            (correct)
            
    We know that 357 is not the correct answer.  Since you cannot subtract 9 from 2, regroup from the tens.  The tens is now a 1 and the ones place now has 12.  Subtract 9 from 12 and get 3.  Then, look at the tens place.  You now have a 1 on top.  Since you can not subtract 7 from 1, you need to regroup.  Take 100 from the hundreds.  The hundreds place is now a 3 and the tens place is now an 11.  Subtract 7 from 11 and get 4.  Then subtract the hundreds place.  3-1 is 2.  The correct answer is 243.
     
     
    Math Skill:  Measurements
    12 inches = 1 foot
    3 feet = 1 yard
    100 cm = 1 m
     
    Just for Mom and Dad:
    4 quarts = 1 gallon
    8 pints = 1 gallon
    16 cups = 1 gallon
    8 ounces = 1 cup
    ** I did not know this until I began teaching--Sad, but true!
     
     
     
    Math Skill:  Multiplication
    **First and foremost, please understand that I teach all students to read the multiplication sentence with the first number being the number of rows or groups.  I always make sure that number sentences match up with pictures.  After this basic concept, we learn how to switch them up to get the same product. 
    Ex:  2 x 4 = 8
    2 is the number of rows or groups
    4 is the number in each row or group
    * * * *
    * * * *
    Yes, 4 x 2 gets the same product, but the picture is not the same.  Hence we need to understand the concept before trying to switch things up.  A lot of students and parents get excired about learning multiplication and try to go all out the first time.  This concept needs to be "learned and practiced" before it can be mastered.  Yes, they will need to memorize their times tables for third grade, but they need to understand why 2 x 3 is 6 and not 5.  Thank you for understanding.
    Now, LET'S HAVE FUN!!!
    Multiplication can be introduced/ learned at this age by using a variety of strategies.  We begin by teaching how to make groups and counting the groups.  Then we move on to other strategies.  Knowing some of these strategies can give your child a basic knowledge of how to figure out multiplication problems without actually knowing the times tables.  At this age, I do not expect them to know the times tables, but we can figure out any multiplication problem by using the strategies learned in class.  Go ahead and try it with your child!  You may be amazed!!
    Repeated Addition:
    Using repeated addition is one of the first and most basic ways to learn to multiply.  It is just like it says:  repeated addition.
    Example:  Sara has 5 packs of gum.  Each pack has 3 pieces.  How many pieces of gum does Sara have in all?
    Add the number of pieces in each pack for the number of packs there are:  3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 15
    Here's how to set it up:  Draw 5 blanks to represent the number of packs.  Put 3 in each blank to represent the number of pieces in each pack.  Then add all the pieces together.
    Skip Counting to Multiply:
    We have been practicing skip counting by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, and 10s for most of the year.  (3s and 4s up to 48)  Many of our students can do these by memory.  YEAH!!!!!
    If the problem is 7 x 5; your child can hold up 7 fingers and skip-count by 5s.   5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35
    If a problem is somthing like 3 x 9, we can not skip-count by 9s, but we can revere the problem to 9 x 3.  Then your child can hold up 9 fingers and skip c ount by 3s.  3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27
    Using Arrays:
    An array is an organized picture that lets you muliply quickly.  You probably have seen arrays many places and did not know that they were arrays. 
    EXAMPLE: You stack your canned veggies in your pantry.  You have 3 rows that are 4 cans high.  How many cans of veggies do you have?
    3 rows x 4 cans in each row-- 3 x 4 = 12
    **We have practiced drawing pictures to show how we solve multiplication problems.  Try this one:  6 x 8 = ?   YES, your second grader can figure this out using an array! :-) 
    Make 6 rows (remember that rows go ACROSS), put 8 pictures of whatever you want in each row.  We usually make dots or stars, hearts are easy also.
    Remember to do the array neatly.  Then count your pictures. TA DA! You now know the product of 6 x 8. 
    * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * *
    Did you get 48?    YEAH!!!
    Using a Multiplication Grid:
    We are just beginning to use a multiplication grid.  This is a little tricky to set up, but easy to use once you figure it out. To find a product, take the first number and put your finger on the matching number on the right side of the grid.  Take the second number and put your finger on the matching number at the top of the grid.  Run your fingers across and down until they match up in the corresponding box.  This should be your product.  Beginners may need to practice this a few times.
     
    multiplication grid
     
    Math Skill:  Division
    Repeated Subtraction:
    Using repeated addition is one of the first and most basic ways to learn to divide.  It is just like it says:  repeated subtraction.
    Example:  Claire has 25 pieces of gum.  There are 5 pieces in a pack.  How many packs of gum does Claire have?
    Subtract the number of pieces in each pack for the number of packs there are:  25-5 = 20...Continue subtracting the number of pieces in a pack from your new number until you have 0. 
    Here's how to set it up:  Start with 25 - 5 = 20; then subtract 5 again...
    20 - 5 = 15...continue subtracting the number of pieces...15 - 5 = 10...10 - 5 = 5... 5 - 5 = 0. Then count the number of times you subtracted 5 to get the total number of packs of gum Claire has.
                                 25      20      15     10     5
                                - 5     -  5     - 5     - 5   - 5
        20      15      10       5     0
     
    You subtracted the number five, 5 times.  So, 25 divided by 5 = 5
    Division is the OPPOSITE of Multiplication:  They can work just like the addition/ subtraction fact families.  See the Fact Families section at the top of this page to see examples.
     
    You can use flashcards on this website: